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We found Sprr2a is selectively expressed in the upper layer of the epithelium surrounding taste buds in the circumvallate papilla CV where the epithelium is organized into taste pores. Wash your hair.

We found Sprr2a is selectively expressed in the upper layer of the epithelium surrounding taste buds in the circumvallate papilla CV where the epithelium is organized into taste pores.

The expression of Sprr2a was restricted to the upper layer and largely segregated with Ptch1 expression that is restricted to the basal side of the epithelium around the taste buds. Denervation resulted in the gradual loss of Sprr2a-expressing cells over 10 days similarly to that of taste bud cells which is in contrast to the rapid loss of Ptch1 expression.

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We also found that denervation caused an increase of Keratin Krt 13 expression around taste buds that corresponded with the disappearance of Sprr2a and Ptch1 expression.

Taste buds were surrounded by Krtnegative cells in the CV in control mice. However, at 6 days post-denervation, taste buds were tightly surrounded by Krtpositive cells.

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During taste bud development, taste bud cells emerged together with Krtnegtive cells, and Sprr2a expression was increased along with the progress of taste bud development. These results demonstrate instant knockeut fat burner aue regional gene expression surrounding taste buds is associated with taste bud formation and controlled by the innervating taste nerve.

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Copyright © Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in domestic chickens.

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Our developmental biology studies identified defects in feather medulla formation, and physical studies revealed that the frizzle feather curls in a stepwise manner. The frizzle gene is transmitted in an autosomal incomplete dominant mode.

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Sequence analyses of the keratin gene cluster identified a 69 bp in-frame deletion in a conserved region of KRT75, an α-keratin gene. Retroviral-mediated expression of the mutated F cDNA in the wild-type rectrix qualitatively changed the bending of the rachis with some features of frizzle feathers including irregular kinks, severe bending near their distal ends, and substantially higher variations among samples in comparison to normal feathers.

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These results confirmed KRT75 as the F gene. This study demonstrates the potential of our approach for identifying genetic determinants of feather forms.

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  • We found Sprr2a is selectively expressed in the upper layer of the epithelium surrounding taste buds in the circumvallate papilla CV where the epithelium is organized into taste pores.
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